Technical & General FAQ

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How much copper sulfate is needed to treat a 13 million gallon tank?

The easiest way to determine the amount to use is to convert gallons to acre ft: 1 acre ft = 326,000 gal; 13 million gal is 39.877 acre ft. multiply acre ft by 5.44 lbs CuSO4 to get the recommended concentration (i.e. 2 ppm CuSO4).

How much copper sulfate should be used for algae control?

The Copper Sulfate Crystals label gives instructions under the heading “CALCULATIONS OF ACTIVE INGREDIENT TO BE ADDED” for calculating the amount of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate to treat 1 acre-foot of water with 2 ppm Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate. The amount listed is 5.44 lbs. Thus, for a 2 ppm concentration, to treat a 1 acre pond with an average depth of 4 feet, 5.44 lbs x 4 (21.76 lbs) would be used. Referring to the list of algae on the label, lower amounts (1/4 up to 2 ppm) can be used to treat for most species.

What sizes of copper sulfate do you carry?

Guide to Copper Sulfate Crystals Sizes

Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate is sold in various crystal sizes. Since there is no uniform standard on describing the crystal sizes, the information that follows may assist you in making comparisons. Please do request a sight sample to make certain the crystals size you are buying meets your customer’s specification. This information serves only as a guide.

Chem One Copper Sulfate Crystal Sizes:

Fine 200: 200 mesh material that looks like powdered sugar. Some users call it instant powder or powdered.
Possible applications: Solutions, Algae control (surface spray solution), Cattle Foot Bath
(Hoof Rot), Bordeaux

Fine100: 100 mesh material that has a very fine particle size but not as dusty as the fine 200. It may be referred to as K100, ultra fine
Possible applications: Solutions, Algae control (surface spray solution), Liquid Fertilizer, cattle Foot Bath (Hoof Rot)

Fine 30: A very fine crystal with particles less than a 30 mesh. Used in the feed industry it is may be referred to as super fine, Fine Diamond, K40 or Feed grade.
Possible applications: Feed, Algae Control (a blower may be used to spray dry crystals to treat surface algae and subsurface (10-15 feet), Cattle Foot Bath (Hoof Rot)

Fine 20: A fine crystal with particles less than averaging a 20 mesh. It may be referred to as Rice, Snow, Diamond, Industrial and K30.
Possible applications: Algae control. A blower may be used to spray dry crystals to treat surface algae and subsurface (10-15 feet), Tadpole shrimp and algae in Rice fields, Root control in Sewers, Fertilizer, Swimmers Itch

Fine 25: A fine crystal with particles less than averaging a 20 mesh. It may be referred to as Rice, Snow, Diamond, Industrial and K30.
Possible applications: Algae control. A blower may be used to spray dry crystals to treat surface algae and subsurface (10-15 feet), Tadpole shrimp and algae in Rice fields, Root control in Sewers, Fertilizer, Swimmers Itch

Rice Grade: A fine crystal with particles less than averaging a 20 mesh.
Application: To control Tadpole shrimp and algae in Rice fields

Small: crystal is about 1/8 of an inch (1-4mm). The mesh size is a –4, +18. It may be referred to as granular, Macro, Coarse, or fertilizer size. Some Companies ship a very fine crystal and call this size Small. Investigate the actual size when someone asks for Small to make certain you understand what size they need.
Possible applications: Algae Control-bottom-dwelling algae(boat-dragged burlap bag method for large lakes and reservoirs, Hand broad cast to treat surface and subsurface algae for lake perimeters and small lake, Irrigation ditches , Swimmer’s Itch, Root control, Fertilizer

Medium: This crystal is about ¼ inch (5-8 mm: mesh-5/16, +4) May be referred to as “quarter inch” or “granulated”. Few use this size for fertilizer blending. Most end uses are in water treating or in industrial applications
Possible applications: Algae control–bottom-dwelling algae (boat-dragged burlap bag method for large lakes and reservoirs),Hand broad cast to treat surface and subsurface algae(for lake perimeters and small lakes), Swimmers Itch, Root Control

Large: This crystal is ½ inch to 1 inch. (8-20mm; -3/4 +5/16)) May be referred to as “big crystals” This size crystal is used almost exclusively in water treatment applications.
Possible applications: Algae control-bottom dwelling algae (boat-dragged burlap bag method for large lakes and reservoirs), Hand broad cast to treat surface and subsurface algae for lake perimeters and small lakes, Irrigation ditchers, Swimmers Itch

Chem One uses the names Fine 200, Fine 100, Fine 30, Fine 20, Small, Medium, and Large. We can offer the above crystal sizes as ANSI/NSF 60 Certified.

Products

In which states does Chem One Ltd. hold pesticide, feed, and fertilizer registrations for Copper Sulfate Crystals?

States where Chem One holds Pesticide Registration:
AL, AK, AR AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, ID, HI, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY,LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS,MT, NE, ND, NH, NJ, NV, NM, NC, NY, OH,OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT,VA, VT, WA, WV, WI, WY (all states)

States where Chem One holds Fertilizer Registration:
AR, AZ CA, CO, GA, IN, ID, KY, MI, MO, MN, MT, NV, OH, OK, OR, SC, SD, TX, WA, WI

States where Chem One holds Feed Registration:
AR, CA, GA, ID, KS, LA, MN, MS, MO, NE, NM, NC, OK, SC, TX, WA, WI

Is Copper Sulfate OMRI approved for organic crop production?

We are OMRI Certified for Copper Sulfate Crystals for CROP PEST, WEED and DISEASE CONTROL.

For plant disease control, must be used in a manner that minimizes accumulation of copper in the soil. For use as an algicide in aquatic rice systems and for tadpole shrimp control in aquatic rice systems, must not exceed one application per field during any 24-month period. Application rates are limited to those which do not increase baseline soil test values for copper over a time frame agreed upon by the producer and accredited certifying agent. May be used as an algicide, insecticide, or disease control if the requirements of 205.206(e) are met, which requires the use of preventative, mechanical, physical, and other pest, weed, and disease management practices.

We are OMRI Certified for Copper Sulfate Crystals FOR CROP FERTILIZERS and SOIL AMENDMENTS

May be used as a plant or soil amendment if soil deficiency of copper is documented by testing. Must not be used as a defoliant, herbicide, or desiccant.

However California has its own program (California Organic Materials Input or OIM) therefore we have to register separately with them and we are only certified with them for Fine 20, Fine 25 and Small they were only accepted by the California OIM because they do not contain an Anti-Caking Agent.

What does SGN on fertilizer labels mean?

A Size Guide Number (SGN) – The diameter, expressed as millimeters x 100, of the fertilizer granules based on the median (or mid-point) within the batch. It means that half of the fertilizer granules are larger than the set SGN and half are smaller. This is determined by passing the fertilizer through various sieves and using the amounts retained by each to calculate the SGN. For example, a fertilizer of SGN 250 will have 50 per cent of its particles retained on or around a sieve with a 2.5-millimeter opening.

What manufacturing methods are used for sodium hydroxide flake and bead?

Sodium Hydroxide flake from Mexico (CCI) is Rayon Grade, using the Mercury Cell Process.

Sodium hydroxide flake from China, and bead from Taiwan, Thailand, Saudi Arabia
are all producted using the Membrane process

How long must I wait to go swimming after treatment with copper sulfate for swimmer’s itch and/or algae control?

Not allowing swimming for 48 hours is recommended. Freshly treated areas should be avoided because of the corrosive nature of copper sulfate to skin, eyes, and digestive tract. As a rule of thumb, keep pets out of treated water for 2 weeks to prevent them from drinking treated water.

Where do organic growers find out whether the use of copper sulfate is acceptable in their application?

Organic growers must clear all products with their certifier. Manufactures may have the OMRI sticker on their bag or container, but the grower must clear the use and application rate of the product with their certifier. Chem One copper sulfate has OMRI approval for disease control (which would include making Bordeaux mixtures), for algaecide in rice fields, and for control of tadpole shrimp in rice fields. Chem One copper sulfate has also been approved by OMRI as a fertilizer component.

In which states is Copper Sulfate restricted for use as a root killer in sewer and/or septic systems?

Copper Sulfate is restricted for use for root control in the following states:

1. State law prohibits the use of this product in all sewage systems in the State of Connecticut.

2. Not for sale or use in the California counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma for root control in sewers.

3. Not for sale or use in septic systems in the States of Florida, Massachusetts and Washington. However, it can be used in sewer systems in these states.

In which states is copper sulfate a State Restricted pesticide and what are the requirements?

A: Copper sulfate is a State Restricted Pesticide in New York, Maine, and New Jersey.

New York: Chem One can not sell directly into New York without an Applicator’s Permit. TheChem One Permit has been cancelled. Therefore, Chem One can only sell through a permit-holder for restricted pesticides. The State of New York also requires Chem One to ask each customer if they have a permit to sell State-Restricted pesticides in New York.
Maine has listed Copper Sulfate as an “aquatic herbicide”. Chem One can not sell direct to an end user in the State of Maine.. Chem one would need to become a restricted use Pesticide Dealer.
New Jersey states that “anyone distributing a state-restricted use pesticide to a retail dealer or whole distributor for resale, is to inform the purchaser that it is a restricted use pesticide in New Jersey.”
Washington has listed copper sulfate as RUP, meaning that it can only be sold through licensed dealers who sell to licensed applicators within the state.
All States require that Chem One be registered before a pesticide can be sold into that particular state.

Where can I find information on the shelf life of a particular product?

Shelf life is listed on product specs.

What are oxidizers?

Oxidizers are compounds which are capable of reacting with and oxidizing (i.e., giving off oxygen) other materials. A well known example of oxidation is the process we know as corrosion, where the metal reacts with air to form the metal oxides referred to as “rust”.

The primary hazard associated with this class of compounds lies in their ability to act as an oxygen source, and thus to readily stimulate the combustion of organic materials. It takes three components for a fire to happen – a fuel source (usually an organic compound, such as paper), an ignition source (such as a flame, a spark, friction, etc.) and an oxygen source (in this case – a cylinder of OXYGEN, a strong oxidizer).

Identifying Oxidizing Materials

1. Chemical structures which should serve as a warning sign

Because of their chemical structure, these materials have excess oxygen which may be liberated, especially at higher temperatures. This capacity to provide excess oxygen at elevated temperatures makes these chemicals a fire and explosion hazard when they come in contact with all forms of combustibles (wood, paper, textiles, plastics, etc.). In addition, mixtures of oxidizers and combustibles can be ignited by a heat energy originating from a weak ignition source such as friction, physical impact or static electricity. Particular caution is required when working with or storing strong oxidizers (see below classifications) because these compounds are capable of reacting with combustibles at room temperature. The result of any of the above contacts can be fire and/or explosion. Typical oxidizers include chemicals with the oxygen-containing groups listed in the following table.

TABLE 1 – Common Oxidizing Groups

Peroxides O2-2
Nitrates NO3-
Nitrites NO2-
Perchlorates CIO4-
Chlorates CIO3-
Chlorites CIO2-
Hypochlorites CIO-
Dichromates Cr2O7-2
Permanganates MnO4
Persulfates S2O8-2

What is the difference between cyanuric and isocyanuric acid?

They are structural forms of the same compound. Cyanuric (-OH) and isocyanuric (=O) are structural isomers. Cyanuric form exists in the dry state, isocyanuric exists in solution. The chemical and physical properties are the same.

At what temperature ranges are ice melters effective?

Calcium chloride is effective down to -25 degrees F.
Rock salt is only effective to 22 degrees F.

What is a quick acting ice melter?

Calcium Chloride works faster than rock salt. A 50 lb bag of calcium chloride will deice twice the area as rock salt, in less time, and at colder temperatures.

What is the difference between NSF and UL certification?

Currently two organizations, NSF International (
www.nsf.org
) and Underwriters Laboratories (
www.ul.com
) are accredited by ANSI to certify products in the areas of Drinking Water Additives (ANSI/NSF 60).

A statement of “UL certification” may be contained on some products and “NSF certification” on others which may lead an individual to wonder if they have the same meaning. UL and NSF have their own certification programs in which they test products to a given standard. In the case of drinking water additives, they both test to the ANSI/NSF 60 Standard.

If a product is certified by either UL or NSF it means that the product meets the ANSI/NSF 60 Standard.

How do I become a sub registerant?

Chem One Ltd provides customers with an opportunity to subregister under the Copper Sulfate Crystals label for the purpose of repacking the Chem One product into smaller containers for retail sale. A “repackaging agreement” is negotiated between Chem One and the customer/subregistrant. Chem One reviews and accepts the subregistrant label, and EPA form number 8570-5, Notice of Supplemental Distribution of a Registered Pesticide Product, is submitted to the EPA. Each subregistrant must have an EPA establishment number and submit an annual report for Pesticide Product Establishments (Form 3540-16). Information on pesticide registration, establishment numbers, forms, etc. can be found on the EPA web site
www.epa.gov

What is an EPA subregistration?

EPA subregistration is when the EPA allows supplemental distribution of a registered pesticide product under another company’s name and address as explained in 40 CFR 152.132.

Do I need a registration if I sell a registered pesticide into an industrial application?

No, as long as product stays in the same bag.

What happens if I sell a non registered product to a customer and they use it as a pesticide?

If they have an EPA registration, they are in compliance with the EPA; if they do not register, they are out of compliance. This does not affect your company’s compliance.

How can Hoof Rot be controlled?

Veterinarians have prescribed a variety of antibiotics and hoof rot lesions can be removed. However, the problem reoccurs unless the moist conditions can be eliminated. An effective method that has been used for many years to control hoof rot in cattle is to twice daily walk cattle though foot baths of 2 to 5 % copper sulfate. Footbaths of copper sulfate are not recommended for sheep because of high toxicity.

What is “Hoof Rot” in cattle?

Hoof Rot or “Hairy Heel Warts” is a problem that plagues dairymen. Dairy cattle are more likely to develop hoof rot because they routinely walk though muddy areas whereas open range beef cattle are less likely to develop hoof rot. Cow hooves are infected by bacteria present in the moist soil.

Can lakes be chemically treated to prevent swimmer’s itch?

Crystals of copper sulfate are applied by licensed applicators to control the snails that host the parasites. Review the instructions given on the Chem One EPA label. Contact your state Department of Agriculture, Pesticide Division, to obtain the required permits and instructions or the name of a licensed applicator in your area. Each state will provide additional instructions regarding the time of year, frequency, and or amount of copper sulfate they allow to be used in this application.

How can Swimmer’s itch be prevented?

There are some precautions a swimmer can take. Making a habit of removing the water immediately from the skin after swimming, by brisk toweling or showering, may reduce of occurrence of swimmer’s itch. Applying water- proof sun screen before entering the water may be helpful.

What is Swimmer’s Itch?

Swimmer’s itch occurs in lakes in the northern tier states (Washington State to New England states) and Canada. Swimmer’s Itch (schistosome cercarial dermatitis) occurs when a small, free-swimming parasite burrows into the skin of the swimmer. The parasite then dies and an allergic reaction develops, which causes intense itching and the appearance of a rash. In nature, the adult parasite exists in waterfowl; eggs develop in the intestinal tract of the waterfowl, are excreted into the water where they hatch. The young forms (“wigglers”) seek out another host- a particular species of aquatic snail, where they develop into a free swimming form that re-infects the water fowl. Sometimes the free swimming form, which exists from June to October, looking for their water fowl host, will attach to swimmers who venture into the infected waters.

What does “coated” versus “uncoated” mean?

Some products may be coated in order to extend shelf life or activity. Uncoated forms are, therefore, more labile, have shorter shelf lives, or faster reaction times.

What sequestrants (chelating agents, chemicals that bind with metals) does Chem One offer?

Citric Acid, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate, Sodium Hexametaphosphate, Sodium Tripolyphosphate, Tetra Sodium Pyrophosphate, and Sodium Thiosulfate.

Are Borax and Boric Acid the same chemical?

No, Borax is sodium borate, Na2B4O7*10H20. Boric acid is H3BO3.

Is it possible that the dry chemical I purchase from Chem One could be hard (“caked”)? Why?

Many dry chemicals are hydroscopic; they pick up moisture from the air and become hard. Storage in a dry, cool environment will help prevent caking. A short list of material prone to becoming hard quickly (less than 1 year) includes: Ammonium Bifluoride, Ammonium Chloride – Untreated, Ammonium Persulfate, Ferrous Sulfate – Untreated, Sodium Hexametaphosphate – Coarse, Magnesium Sulfate, Trisodium Phosphate, Sodium Persulfate, Monosodium Phosphate, Sodium Bisulfate, Sodium Acetate, Potassium Acetate, Sulfamic Acid, Oxalic Acid, Thiourea

Why is my solution of Copper Sulfate Fine 100 “cloudy”?

A Fine 100 copper sulfate solution will sometimes be cloudy, because it is very dry and has a lower pH than the other crystal sizes. With a few drops of acid (e.g., citric acid), the solution becomes clear.

What is the difference between copper hydrate and copper hydroxide?

These are synonyms for the same chemical, Cu (OH) 2. However, some suppliers list copper hydrate, Cu=62.5% and copper hydroxide, Cu= 57.5%

What is Basic Copper Chloride?

This compound is also called tribasic copper chloride, or copper oxychloride, CuCl2*3Cu (OH) 2, CAS no. 1332-40-7. “Tribasic” indicates that this compound has three Cu (OH) 2’s in the formula.

What is Tribasic Copper Sulfate?

Tribasic copper sulfate, also called “basic” copper sulfate, has the following formula: CuSO4*3Cu (OH) 2, CAS no. 12068-81-4. “Tribasic” indicates that this compound has three Cu (OH) 2’s in the formula. Main use is as a foliar fungicide.

How is copper sulfate manufactured?

The production of copper sulfate uses the Harike (1950) method. Copper wire (feed stock can be copper telephone wire with the plastic stripped away or motor turnings), is reacted with technical grade sulfuric acid solution and air to produce copper sulfate and water. This reaction is done in a tower or vat, where heated sulfuric acid solutions and air can be circulated through the copper wire. Copper sulfate crystals precipitate from the acid solution and are collected. The crystals are washed with water to remove remaining sulfuric acid, air-dried, crushed, and sieved to produce copper sulfate product of various granularities. Acid solutions are recycled/reused.

Is NSF certified Copper Sulfate needed for treating ponds, irrigation ditches, etc for algae-control?

No. NSF is usually designated for municipalities in treating potable drinking water. There is a list of states he NSF publishes that have, do not have, or are changing their requirements for NSF certified material.

I never used copper sulfate before, where should I begin? How harmful is it?

Read the label and follow the instructions! Request a Safety Data Sheet and read it before using this product. Copper sulfate is corrosive to humans, animals as well as to metals. The label must be read to gain an understanding of how to correctly apply copper sulfate to treat surface or bottom-dwelling algae, how to avoid fish kills (trout are very sensitive to copper sulfate), and to become aware of the corrosive nature of copper sulfate. If your pond or lake contains expensive fish, consider alternatives to using copper sulfate to kill algae. Always use the lowest dosage possible.

Why do Copper Sulfate Fine 20 crystals have a white residue?

The white coating is copper monohydrate created during drying of the copper sulfate pentahydrate. It will dissolve and not leave a residue.

Which sizes of copper sulfate contain anticaking agent?

Copper Sulfate powder (Fine 200, Fine 100, Fine 30) contain an anticaking agent (e.g. Magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate); larger sizes (Fine 20 – X large) do not. Anticaking agent creates a film on fine 30 crystals.

What is dioxin?

Dioxin is an unwanted byproduct of incineration, uncontrolled burning and certain industrial processes. The term “dioxin” actually refers to a family of 17 compounds of varying toxicities. The EPA monitors dioxin waste and emissions.

What sizes of copper sulfate do you carry?

Guide to Copper Sulfate Crystals Sizes

Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate is sold in various crystal sizes. Since there is no uniform standard on describing the crystal sizes, the information that follows may assist you in making comparisons. Please do request a sight sample to make certain the crystals size you are buying meets your customer’s specification. This information serves only as a guide.

Chem One Copper Sulfate Crystal Sizes:

Fine 200: 200 mesh material that looks like powdered sugar. Some users call it instant powder or powdered.
Possible applications: Solutions, Algae control (surface spray solution), Cattle Foot Bath
(Hoof Rot), Bordeaux

Fine100: 100 mesh material that has a very fine particle size but not as dusty as the fine 200. It may be referred to as K100, ultra fine
Possible applications: Solutions, Algae control (surface spray solution), Liquid Fertilizer, cattle Foot Bath (Hoof Rot)

Fine 30: A very fine crystal with particles less than a 30 mesh. Used in the feed industry it is may be referred to as super fine, Fine Diamond, K40 or Feed grade.
Possible applications: Feed, Algae Control (a blower may be used to spray dry crystals to treat surface algae and subsurface (10-15 feet), Cattle Foot Bath (Hoof Rot)

Fine 20: A fine crystal with particles less than averaging a 20 mesh. It may be referred to as Rice, Snow, Diamond, Industrial and K30.
Possible applications: Algae control. A blower may be used to spray dry crystals to treat surface algae and subsurface (10-15 feet), Tadpole shrimp and algae in Rice fields, Root control in Sewers, Fertilizer, Swimmers Itch

Fine 25: A fine crystal with particles less than averaging a 20 mesh. It may be referred to as Rice, Snow, Diamond, Industrial and K30.
Possible applications: Algae control. A blower may be used to spray dry crystals to treat surface algae and subsurface (10-15 feet), Tadpole shrimp and algae in Rice fields, Root control in Sewers, Fertilizer, Swimmers Itch

Rice Grade: A fine crystal with particles less than averaging a 20 mesh.
Application: To control Tadpole shrimp and algae in Rice fields

Small: crystal is about 1/8 of an inch (1-4mm). The mesh size is a –4, +18. It may be referred to as granular, Macro, Coarse, or fertilizer size. Some Companies ship a very fine crystal and call this size Small. Investigate the actual size when someone asks for Small to make certain you understand what size they need.
Possible applications: Algae Control-bottom-dwelling algae(boat-dragged burlap bag method for large lakes and reservoirs, Hand broad cast to treat surface and subsurface algae for lake perimeters and small lake, Irrigation ditches , Swimmer’s Itch, Root control, Fertilizer

Medium: This crystal is about ¼ inch (5-8 mm: mesh-5/16, +4) May be referred to as “quarter inch” or “granulated”. Few use this size for fertilizer blending. Most end uses are in water treating or in industrial applications
Possible applications: Algae control–bottom-dwelling algae (boat-dragged burlap bag method for large lakes and reservoirs),Hand broad cast to treat surface and subsurface algae(for lake perimeters and small lakes), Swimmers Itch, Root Control

Large: This crystal is ½ inch to 1 inch. (8-20mm; -3/4 +5/16)) May be referred to as “big crystals” This size crystal is used almost exclusively in water treatment applications.
Possible applications: Algae control-bottom dwelling algae (boat-dragged burlap bag method for large lakes and reservoirs), Hand broad cast to treat surface and subsurface algae for lake perimeters and small lakes, Irrigation ditchers, Swimmers Itch

Chem One uses the names Fine 200, Fine 100, Fine 30, Fine 20, Small, Medium, and Large. We can offer the above crystal sizes as ANSI/NSF 60 Certified.

Applications

Where can I find general information on the control of algae and aquatic weeds and general information on use of copper sulfate for algae control?

An article published by Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 1996 provides an overview of aquatic weed control.
Click here
to access the article (Chem One does not guarantee the correctness of the information)

What is the oily film that forms when I make a pail full of copper sulfate pentahydrate solution in tap water?

When copper sulfate pentahydrate is dissolved in hard water, i.e. containing calcium carbonate, an “oily white film” will quickly form on the surface. This is copper carbonate, which is insoluble in water. This reaction will occur at pH values of 6 or higher. If the pH is subsequently dropped below pH 4 with acid (e.g. sulfuric, hydrochloric, or citric acid) , the white film will quickly dissolve.

Which zinc oxide (802 or 920) is better for rubber curing?

The 802 is more suitable for curing rubber than 920, they both have the same characteristics, but 802 has a higher surface area than 920

What is the difference between sodium bisulfite and sodium metasulfite?

Sodium Bisulfite is sodium hydrogen sulfite, Na2S2O5, CAS 7631-90-5. Sodium metabisulfite, is sodium pyrosulfite, Na2S2O5; CAS 7681-57-4; the metabisulfite is the chief constituent of commercial dry “sodium bisulfite”. Its uses and properties are practically identical to sodium bisulfite. The government restricts use of metabisulfite in food under 21CFR parts 170 thru 190.
Solutions of sodium metasulfite are referred to as sodium bisulfite.

What is required to ship products into Mexico?

The customer in Mexico needs to be registered as the “importer of record”.

When can a chemical not be used as a pesticide?

If it is not registered with the EPA.

Who needs to be registered with the EPA?

Anyone who sells a product into a pesticide application. Distributors can resell the product as long as it remains in the same bag with the same label. Changing the container or label requires a sub-registration. Review information on EPA website www.epa.gov for details on pesticide registrations and restrictions.

How do I get rid of the white residue after using oxalic acid to remove iron stains for concrete?

The white residue is calcium oxalate, an insoluble reside formed from the reaction of concrete and oxalic acid. Muriatic acid (dilute HCl) will remove this residue. Follow the label instructions on the muriatic acid; it is corrosive to concrete and skin.

How can I remove copper sulfate stains?

Copper sulfate stains can be removed with muriatic acid (dilute HCl). Be sure muriatic acid is safe to use on the surface you are cleaning. Note that muriatic acid is corrosive to many surfaces and to skin.

What is Bordeaux mixture?

Bordeaux mixture is a fungicide preparation made of copper sulfate (usually Fine 100 or Fine 200) and hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) or slaked lime (CaO). A general formula is 10-10-100 (i.e. 10 lbs copper sulfate, 10 lbs hydrated lime, 100 gallons of water). Approved by the EPA 01/31/2006, Bordeaux mixture formula for individual plants and trees will appear on the Chem One Copper Sulfate Crystals label.

Is there a waiting period before I can use the water for drinking, cattle watering, irrigation, eating fish in a copper sulfate- treated pond or lake?

If the treated water is to be used as potable (drinking) water, the concentration of copper sulfate must not exceed 4 ppm. This concentration is also expressed as 1 ppm Cu.

If the treated water is to be used for irrigating crops or lawns, wait 2 weeks before use, otherwise the copper sulfate may kill the plants. Wait 2 weeks before eating fish. If the treated water is for watering animals, wait two weeks, if the pond was treated at the potable water level (4 ppm copper sulfate—or 1 ppm Cu), then it is OK to water animals except for sheep. Sheep are extremely sensitive to copper; do not allow sheep to drink treated water, seek advice of a veterinarian or state Department of Agriculture to determine when water is safe for sheep.

How do I spray copper sulfate on a pond surface?

First, determine how many acre feet you are treating. For example, if treating 1 acre foot, dissolve 5.44 lbs in your spray tank ( because 5 .44 lbs will dissolve in 2 to 3 gallons of water; then this amount of copper sulfate will readily dissolve in larger spray tanks.). If the pond or lake contains fish, treat only one-half to one third at one time. In this example, use one-half (2.72 lbs) or one- third (1.81 lbs) the amount of copper sulfate of each treatment. Wait 2 weeks before treating the next section.

How much copper sulfate should be used for algae control?

The Copper Sulfate Crystals label gives instructions under the heading “CALCULATIONS OF ACTIVE INGREDIENT TO BE ADDED” for calculating the amount of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate to treat 1 acre-foot of water with 2 ppm Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate. The amount listed is 5.44 lbs. Thus, for a 2 ppm concentration, to treat a 1 acre pond with an average depth of 4 feet, 5.44 lbs x 4 (21.76 lbs) would be used. Referring to the list of algae on the label, lower amounts (1/4 up to 2 ppm) can be used to treat for most species.

Calculations

How do I do the calculations to convert a hydrated product to the anhydrous equivalent?

The theoretical basis for conversion of a hydrated product to the anhydrous equivalent is determining the amount of water present in the hydrated product based on molecular weight. For example, Citric acid anhydrous mol wt is 192.13; citric acid monohydrate mol wt is 210. 13 (i.e. water mol wt is 18) and water is 8.56% of the total. So to make a 50% solution (½ citric acid: ½ water) where the total wt is 48,000 lbs, one would use 24,000 lbs anhydrous or 26054.4 lbs monohydrate (to calculate 26054.4 lbs: 24000 lbs (citric acid) + 20544 lbs (water), where 24,000 x 0.0856= 2054.4 lbs water). Then use enough water to make total weight 48,000 lbs.

In practice, however, one uses a hydrometer to determine the specific gravity of the end solution, which should be 1.24 at 77 degrees F for a 50 % soln of citric acid, and then one adjusts by diluting with water to lower the sp gravity or adding dry product to raise the specific gravity. The practical difference between the anhydrous and the monohydrate is 10% rather than 8.56%, thus, it takes 10% more monohydrate to make a 50% solution.

So, to make a 50% solution where the total wt is 48,000 lbs, one would use 24,000 lbs anhydrous or 26400 lbs monohydrate {to calculate: 24000 (citric acid anhydrous + 2400 lbs (water), where 24000 x 0.10 = 2400 lbs water).

Can you help me with some conversion factors?
Area: 1 acre = 43560 sq ft
Bulk Density: g/cc = lb/cu ft x 0.016 lb/cu ft = g/cc x 62.32
Concentration: 1 ppb (ng/kg) = 0.001 ppm 1 ppm (mg/kg) = 0.0001% w/w = weight  of solute/100  total weight units
Length: 1 millimeter (mm)= 0.001 meter = 0.039 inch 1 micron or micro meter ( µm) = 0.001 millimeter
Mass & Volume: gallons of water x 8.336 = Lbs of water lbs of water x 0.119 = Gal cubic ft of water x 62.4 = lbs of water
Temperature: C = [F-32] x 0.555 F = [C x 1.8] + 32
Weight: lbs= kg x 2.2046 kgs = lb x 0.45 1 lb = 16 oz  1 lb = oz x 0.0625  1 g = 0.0022 lbs
How do I calculate the percentage of an element in formula?

Atomic Weight of Element ÷ Formula Weight) x 100* =   %

*If the purity (assay) is less than 100%, e.g., 98%, then multiply by 98

Example: Manganese Sulfate monohydrate,

MnSO4*H2O, has a formula weight of 169.006.

Atomic weight Mn                54.94                             (54.94÷169.006) x 100     32.508%

SO4              96.066                           (96.066÷169.006) x 100     56.842%

H2O              18                                ( 18÷169.006) x 100          10.650%

How do I calculate a weight-weight solution as lbs/gallon of water?

A Weight-Weight solution is expressed as:

Weight of solute/ 100 total weight units

e.g. x grams/ 100 grams total weight

For a 50% w/w solution, you need 50 g solute /100g solution or 50 g solute/ (50 g solute + 50 g water).

For Weight-Weight solutions expressed as lbs/ gallons of water:

 

X lbs of solute plus weight of water to make 100 lbs.

e.g. 50 lbs solute/ 100 lbs total weight of solution (i.e. 50 lbs of water)

For example: If you have 4500 gallons of water its mass is as follows:
Mass water = 4500 gallons water x (8.34 lbs/gal) = 37,530 lbs
so, for a 50% w/w solution you would need 37, 530 lbs solute (dry weight) plus 37,530 lbs water. This will be over 4500 gallons of solution!

If the final volume, specific gravity of the soln and % soln are known:

For 4500 gallon soln: If you know the specific gravity of the final solution (1.24), then the mass of the final solution is as follows (In this case citric acid 50% soln):
Mass solution = 4500 gal x (8.34 lbs water/ 1gal water) x (1.24 lbs solution/1.0 lbs water) = 46,537 lbs
Then for a 50% w/w solution, 1/2 is water (23,268 lbs = 2790 gal) and 1/2 is solute (the other 23, 268 lbs).

 

The specific gravity of wt% solutions can be obtained from the producer; the handbook of Chemistry and Physics lists specific gravities for, e.g., 1-20% solutions of many common products.

How do I calculate Mesh Size?

Mesh Size Conversion Table

Note: A “+” before the mesh size means retained on and larger than the sieve. A “-” means passes through sieve, and smaller than mesh.

US Mesh size Approx Microns(µm) Approx millimeters (mm) Approx Inches
1 25400 25.4 1
1/2 12700 12.7 0.5
1/4 6350 6.35 0.25
4 4760 4.76 0.185
6 3360 3.36 0.131
8 2380 2.38 0.093
12 1680 1.68 0.065
16 1190 1.19 0.046
20  840 0.84 0.0328
30  590 0.59 0.0232
40  420 0.42 0.0164
50  297 0.29 0.0116
60  250 0.25 0.0097
70  210 0.21 0.0082
80  177 0.17 0.0069
100  149 0.14 0.0058
140  105 0.10 0.0041
200   74 0.07 0.0029
230   62 0.06 0.0024
270   53 0.05 0.0021
325   44 0.04 0.0017
400   37 0.02 0.0015
How much copper sulfate is needed to treat a 13 million gallon tank?

The easiest way to determine the amount to use is to convert gallons to acre ft: 1 acre ft = 326,000 gal; 13 million gal is 39.877 acre ft. multiply acre ft by 5.44 lbs CuSO4 to get the recommended concentration (i.e. 2 ppm CuSO4).

How do I convert ammonium bifluoride to HF equivalents?

One (1) lb of ammonium bifluoride equals 5 ½ oz HF; this is based on the 1:1 molar relationship of molecular weight of HF=20 versus mol weight of ammonium bifluoride=55.

How do I determine pond/lake volumes in acre-feet?

The Chem One Ltd Copper Sulfate bag label provides the brief instructions for determining the area and volume how much copper sulfate to use in treating a body of water for algae. See section “CALCULATIONS FOR THE AMOUNT OF WATER IMPOUNDED AND FOR THE AMOUNT OF COPPER SULFATE TO BE USED”.

Below are some helpful calculations to determine the volume of a pond or lake in acre-feet:

An acre equals 43560 sq feet; for example, 1 acre equals 208.7 x 208.7 feet.  An acre-foot of water is a surface area in acres with a depth of 1 foot. For example, a pond that covers an acre and has an average depth of 4 feet contains 4 acre-feet of water.

For rectangular ponds the surface area in acres equals the length in feet times the width in feet divided by 43,560. Multiply the acres obtained by the average depth to obtain acre feet.

For circular ponds measure the total distance around the edge of the pond or lake in feet, multiply this number by itself and divide by 547,390 to obtain surface area in acres. Multiply by average depth to obtain acre feet.

General

We want to reduce the chances of unintended chemical reactions. Do you have any information available on the products you offer to help us address this safety issue?

Please include in your safety review Safety Data Sheets we provide. These are in the ANSI formatted version and very detailed. Consider downloading software pertaining to reactivity as well. The more you know about this topic the better!

Do you load trucks after normal business hours?

Yes, arrangements can be made for a load to be picked up outside of normal business hours. Terms are as follows: 1. We must have a contact name and telephone number for both the customer and trucking company so we can reach someone if there are any questions. 2. A $100.00 per hour fee will be assessed.  Charges after the hour are rounded up to the nearest 30 minutes. (i.e. 6:15 is 1½ hours, 6:35 pm is 2 hours). 3. Any order that will require someone to be here later than7:00 pm must be approved. 4. If for any reason the shipment is not picked up as planned the customer will be charged for our time at $100.00 per hour.

Do you have weekend loading hours?

Chem One will load trucks on weekends to meet customers´ needs under the following guidelines:

  • Request for weekend loading must be made by Friday before 5:00 pm.
  • Only the products requested will be loaded on the weekend.  There will be no products added to the order the day of the pickup.
  • There is a minimum call out charge of four (4) hours to load trucks.
  • The charge for a four (4) hour call out is a minimum of $300.00. Most loadings will be with one person.  Each additional hour over four (4) hours is $100.00 per person.  An estimate of cost will be given to the customer the day the request is made.
What is your Product Return Policy?

We do not accept any returns for the full amount of the invoice. It does not reflect the costs to cover monies we have spent to process the transaction and the time value of money. In many cases we have already reordered product for our stock. Acceptance of a return may create an overstock situation for us.

The following items are not eligible for return:Broken packages or dented drums Food grade products Special order products Product shipped greater than 120 days from return request date

Freight charges associated with the return of the product are absorbed by the buyer.

All products that are accepted for return must be sent back to our Houston warehouse so they can be fully inspected and approved for return.

In a case where we do authorize a return of product that is in good condition our restocking fees are as follows:15% on products shipped out within the last 30 days 25% on products shipped out 30 to 90 days 50% on products shipped out 90-120 days

Documentation required to authorize a product return:When was the product purchased? How much is to be returned? Why is it being returned? Where has it been stored?

All returns must be authorized by an officer of Chem One Ltd.

I see references to NACD and Responsible Distribution on your site. What do these abbreviations stand for?

Please select Contact Us::Contacts menu bar. This page contains details on who to contact with your specific questions. You can also submit a question via e-mail by selecting Contact Us::Submit a Question. This will send the inquiry to a staff member who will respond to your question or forward it to the appropriate person for resolution.

I do not see the exact product and/or specification I am looking for. Are these the only products and specifications you can source?

The products shown on our site are the products that we generally stock. We have sources from all over the world and generally can meet any of your dry chemical needs and/or specifications. Please contact your sales representative or see the Contact Us page on this site in order to speak with someone regarding your specific needs.

Some of the documents on this site require Adobe Acrobat Reader. What is this and how do I get it?

Adobe Acrobat Reader is a free software tool available to anyone that gives users the ability to read Acrobat files in Portable Document Format (PDF).  This software tool is available for both the Microsoft and Macintosh operating systems. To obtain a copy of this software, please see the Adobe web site athttp://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readermain.html

Why do you require a user name and password in order to access information on the site?

Chem One considers the information protected by password security to be proprietary and confidential. We want to make sure that access is granted to our intended audience.

How do I obtain a user name and password for your site?

Simply press the Register link in the top right hand corner of the screen. This will take you to the registration page where you can complete the required fields and obtain access to all features of the site.

Copper Sulfate

How much copper sulfate is needed to treat a 13 million gallon tank?

The easiest way to determine the amount to use is to convert gallons to acre ft: 1 acre ft = 326,000 gal; 13 million gal is 39.877 acre ft. multiply acre ft by 5.44 lbs CuSO4 to get the recommended concentration (i.e. 2 ppm CuSO4).

Where can I find general information on the control of algae and aquatic weeds and general information on use of copper sulfate for algae control?

An article published by Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 1996 provides an overview of aquatic weed control.
Click here
to access the article (Chem One does not guarantee the correctness of the information)

What is the oily film that forms when I make a pail full of copper sulfate pentahydrate solution in tap water?

When copper sulfate pentahydrate is dissolved in hard water, i.e. containing calcium carbonate, an “oily white film” will quickly form on the surface. This is copper carbonate, which is insoluble in water. This reaction will occur at pH values of 6 or higher. If the pH is subsequently dropped below pH 4 with acid (e.g. sulfuric, hydrochloric, or citric acid) , the white film will quickly dissolve.

How can I remove copper sulfate stains?

Copper sulfate stains can be removed with muriatic acid (dilute HCl). Be sure muriatic acid is safe to use on the surface you are cleaning. Note that muriatic acid is corrosive to many surfaces and to skin.

Is there a waiting period before I can use the water for drinking, cattle watering, irrigation, eating fish in a copper sulfate- treated pond or lake?

If the treated water is to be used as potable (drinking) water, the concentration of copper sulfate must not exceed 4 ppm. This concentration is also expressed as 1 ppm Cu.

If the treated water is to be used for irrigating crops or lawns, wait 2 weeks before use, otherwise the copper sulfate may kill the plants. Wait 2 weeks before eating fish. If the treated water is for watering animals, wait two weeks, if the pond was treated at the potable water level (4 ppm copper sulfate—or 1 ppm Cu), then it is OK to water animals except for sheep. Sheep are extremely sensitive to copper; do not allow sheep to drink treated water, seek advice of a veterinarian or state Department of Agriculture to determine when water is safe for sheep.

How do I spray copper sulfate on a pond surface?

First, determine how many acre feet you are treating. For example, if treating 1 acre foot, dissolve 5.44 lbs in your spray tank ( because 5 .44 lbs will dissolve in 2 to 3 gallons of water; then this amount of copper sulfate will readily dissolve in larger spray tanks.). If the pond or lake contains fish, treat only one-half to one third at one time. In this example, use one-half (2.72 lbs) or one- third (1.81 lbs) the amount of copper sulfate of each treatment. Wait 2 weeks before treating the next section.

How much copper sulfate should be used for algae control?

The Copper Sulfate Crystals label gives instructions under the heading “CALCULATIONS OF ACTIVE INGREDIENT TO BE ADDED” for calculating the amount of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate to treat 1 acre-foot of water with 2 ppm Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate. The amount listed is 5.44 lbs. Thus, for a 2 ppm concentration, to treat a 1 acre pond with an average depth of 4 feet, 5.44 lbs x 4 (21.76 lbs) would be used. Referring to the list of algae on the label, lower amounts (1/4 up to 2 ppm) can be used to treat for most species.

In which states does Chem One Ltd. hold pesticide, feed, and fertilizer registrations for Copper Sulfate Crystals?

States where Chem One holds Pesticide Registration:
AL, AK, AR AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, ID, HI, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY,LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS,MT, NE, ND, NH, NJ, NV, NM, NC, NY, OH,OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT,VA, VT, WA, WV, WI, WY (all states)

States where Chem One holds Fertilizer Registration:
AR, AZ CA, CO, GA, IN, ID, KY, MI, MO, MN, MT, NV, OH, OK, OR, SC, SD, TX, WA, WI

States where Chem One holds Feed Registration:
AR, CA, GA, ID, KS, LA, MN, MS, MO, NE, NM, NC, OK, SC, TX, WA, WI

How long must I wait to go swimming after treatment with copper sulfate for swimmer’s itch and/or algae control?

Not allowing swimming for 48 hours is recommended. Freshly treated areas should be avoided because of the corrosive nature of copper sulfate to skin, eyes, and digestive tract. As a rule of thumb, keep pets out of treated water for 2 weeks to prevent them from drinking treated water.

Where do organic growers find out whether the use of copper sulfate is acceptable in their application?

Organic growers must clear all products with their certifier. Manufactures may have the OMRI sticker on their bag or container, but the grower must clear the use and application rate of the product with their certifier. Chem One copper sulfate has OMRI approval for disease control (which would include making Bordeaux mixtures), for algaecide in rice fields, and for control of tadpole shrimp in rice fields. Chem One copper sulfate has also been approved by OMRI as a fertilizer component.

In which states is Copper Sulfate restricted for use as a root killer in sewer and/or septic systems?

Copper Sulfate is restricted for use for root control in the following states:

1. State law prohibits the use of this product in all sewage systems in the State of Connecticut.

2. Not for sale or use in the California counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, and Sonoma for root control in sewers.

3. Not for sale or use in septic systems in the States of Florida, Massachusetts and Washington. However, it can be used in sewer systems in these states.

In which states is copper sulfate a State Restricted pesticide and what are the requirements?

A: Copper sulfate is a State Restricted Pesticide in New York, Maine, and New Jersey.

New York: Chem One can not sell directly into New York without an Applicator’s Permit. TheChem One Permit has been cancelled. Therefore, Chem One can only sell through a permit-holder for restricted pesticides. The State of New York also requires Chem One to ask each customer if they have a permit to sell State-Restricted pesticides in New York.
Maine has listed Copper Sulfate as an “aquatic herbicide”. Chem One can not sell direct to an end user in the State of Maine.. Chem one would need to become a restricted use Pesticide Dealer.
New Jersey states that “anyone distributing a state-restricted use pesticide to a retail dealer or whole distributor for resale, is to inform the purchaser that it is a restricted use pesticide in New Jersey.”
Washington has listed copper sulfate as RUP, meaning that it can only be sold through licensed dealers who sell to licensed applicators within the state.
All States require that Chem One be registered before a pesticide can be sold into that particular state.

Why is my solution of Copper Sulfate Fine 100 “cloudy”?

A Fine 100 copper sulfate solution will sometimes be cloudy, because it is very dry and has a lower pH than the other crystal sizes. With a few drops of acid (e.g., citric acid), the solution becomes clear.

What is Tribasic Copper Sulfate?

Tribasic copper sulfate, also called “basic” copper sulfate, has the following formula: CuSO4*3Cu (OH) 2, CAS no. 12068-81-4. “Tribasic” indicates that this compound has three Cu (OH) 2’s in the formula. Main use is as a foliar fungicide.

How is copper sulfate manufactured?

The production of copper sulfate uses the Harike (1950) method. Copper wire (feed stock can be copper telephone wire with the plastic stripped away or motor turnings), is reacted with technical grade sulfuric acid solution and air to produce copper sulfate and water. This reaction is done in a tower or vat, where heated sulfuric acid solutions and air can be circulated through the copper wire. Copper sulfate crystals precipitate from the acid solution and are collected. The crystals are washed with water to remove remaining sulfuric acid, air-dried, crushed, and sieved to produce copper sulfate product of various granularities. Acid solutions are recycled/reused.

Is NSF certified Copper Sulfate needed for treating ponds, irrigation ditches, etc for algae-control?

No. NSF is usually designated for municipalities in treating potable drinking water. There is a list of states he NSF publishes that have, do not have, or are changing their requirements for NSF certified material.

I never used copper sulfate before, where should I begin? How harmful is it?

Read the label and follow the instructions! Request a Safety Data Sheet and read it before using this product. Copper sulfate is corrosive to humans, animals as well as to metals. The label must be read to gain an understanding of how to correctly apply copper sulfate to treat surface or bottom-dwelling algae, how to avoid fish kills (trout are very sensitive to copper sulfate), and to become aware of the corrosive nature of copper sulfate. If your pond or lake contains expensive fish, consider alternatives to using copper sulfate to kill algae. Always use the lowest dosage possible.

Why do Copper Sulfate Fine 20 crystals have a white residue?

The white coating is copper monohydrate created during drying of the copper sulfate pentahydrate. It will dissolve and not leave a residue.

Which sizes of copper sulfate contain anticaking agent?

Copper Sulfate powder (Fine 200, Fine 100, Fine 30) contain an anticaking agent (e.g. Magnesium carbonate, calcium carbonate); larger sizes (Fine 20 – X large) do not. Anticaking agent creates a film on fine 30 crystals.

How much copper sulfate is needed to treat a 13 million gallon tank?

The easiest way to determine the amount to use is to convert gallons to acre ft: 1 acre ft = 326,000 gal; 13 million gal is 39.877 acre ft. multiply acre ft by 5.44 lbs CuSO4 to get the recommended concentration (i.e. 2 ppm CuSO4).

How much copper sulfate should be used for algae control?

The Copper Sulfate Crystals label gives instructions under the heading “CALCULATIONS OF ACTIVE INGREDIENT TO BE ADDED” for calculating the amount of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate to treat 1 acre-foot of water with 2 ppm Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate. The amount listed is 5.44 lbs. Thus, for a 2 ppm concentration, to treat a 1 acre pond with an average depth of 4 feet, 5.44 lbs x 4 (21.76 lbs) would be used. Referring to the list of algae on the label, lower amounts (1/4 up to 2 ppm) can be used to treat for most species.

What sizes of copper sulfate do you carry?

Guide to Copper Sulfate Crystals Sizes

Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate is sold in various crystal sizes. Since there is no uniform standard on describing the crystal sizes, the information that follows may assist you in making comparisons. Please do request a sight sample to make certain the crystals size you are buying meets your customer’s specification. This information serves only as a guide.

Chem One Copper Sulfate Crystal Sizes:

Fine 200: 200 mesh material that looks like powdered sugar. Some users call it instant powder or powdered.
Possible applications: Solutions, Algae control (surface spray solution), Cattle Foot Bath
(Hoof Rot), Bordeaux

Fine100: 100 mesh material that has a very fine particle size but not as dusty as the fine 200. It may be referred to as K100, ultra fine
Possible applications: Solutions, Algae control (surface spray solution), Liquid Fertilizer, cattle Foot Bath (Hoof Rot)

Fine 30: A very fine crystal with particles less than a 30 mesh. Used in the feed industry it is may be referred to as super fine, Fine Diamond, K40 or Feed grade.
Possible applications: Feed, Algae Control (a blower may be used to spray dry crystals to treat surface algae and subsurface (10-15 feet), Cattle Foot Bath (Hoof Rot)

Fine 20: A fine crystal with particles less than averaging a 20 mesh. It may be referred to as Rice, Snow, Diamond, Industrial and K30.
Possible applications: Algae control. A blower may be used to spray dry crystals to treat surface algae and subsurface (10-15 feet), Tadpole shrimp and algae in Rice fields, Root control in Sewers, Fertilizer, Swimmers Itch

Fine 25: A fine crystal with particles less than averaging a 20 mesh. It may be referred to as Rice, Snow, Diamond, Industrial and K30.
Possible applications: Algae control. A blower may be used to spray dry crystals to treat surface algae and subsurface (10-15 feet), Tadpole shrimp and algae in Rice fields, Root control in Sewers, Fertilizer, Swimmers Itch

Rice Grade: A fine crystal with particles less than averaging a 20 mesh.
Application: To control Tadpole shrimp and algae in Rice fields

Small: crystal is about 1/8 of an inch (1-4mm). The mesh size is a –4, +18. It may be referred to as granular, Macro, Coarse, or fertilizer size. Some Companies ship a very fine crystal and call this size Small. Investigate the actual size when someone asks for Small to make certain you understand what size they need.
Possible applications: Algae Control-bottom-dwelling algae(boat-dragged burlap bag method for large lakes and reservoirs, Hand broad cast to treat surface and subsurface algae for lake perimeters and small lake, Irrigation ditches , Swimmer’s Itch, Root control, Fertilizer

Medium: This crystal is about ¼ inch (5-8 mm: mesh-5/16, +4) May be referred to as “quarter inch” or “granulated”. Few use this size for fertilizer blending. Most end uses are in water treating or in industrial applications
Possible applications: Algae control–bottom-dwelling algae (boat-dragged burlap bag method for large lakes and reservoirs),Hand broad cast to treat surface and subsurface algae(for lake perimeters and small lakes), Swimmers Itch, Root Control

Large: This crystal is ½ inch to 1 inch. (8-20mm; -3/4 +5/16)) May be referred to as “big crystals” This size crystal is used almost exclusively in water treatment applications.
Possible applications: Algae control-bottom dwelling algae (boat-dragged burlap bag method for large lakes and reservoirs), Hand broad cast to treat surface and subsurface algae for lake perimeters and small lakes, Irrigation ditchers, Swimmers Itch

Chem One uses the names Fine 200, Fine 100, Fine 30, Fine 20, Small, Medium, and Large. We can offer the above crystal sizes as ANSI/NSF 60 Certified.

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